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Nahajate se: Domov | Archive | Issue No. 264 – The Balkan Migratory Route (2/4 2016)

Archive of past issues of the Journal for critique of science

Issue No. 264 – The Balkan Migratory Route (2/4 2016)

Uršula Lipovec Čebron in Sara Pistotnik (pp. 9-14)

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Editorial

 

Sarah Lunaček Brumen in Ela Meh (pp. 21–45)

The “rise and fall” of the corridor: Some reflections on the changes in the Balkans migratory route after the summer of 2015

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At the end of the summer of 2015, the status quo of the European migration policy has been thoroughly shaken up. The unprecedented size and strength of the movement of migrants – daily arriving from Turkey to the Greek islands, and from there along the so-called Balkans migratory route – put pressure on Fortress Europe and finally achieved, in September 2015, the opening of a corridor for a (relatively) quicker and safer passage from Greece to Austria. This article is an attempt to reflect the events of the last year – the establishment, the characteristics and transformations, as well as the final closure of this corridor. In the first part we propose a conceptual framework for the understanding of the difference between the Balkans migratory route and the corridor and present the timeline of the »rise and fall« of the corridor. In the second part, we try to shed light on the changes which the corridor brought to migration politics and praxis from the perspective of the autonomy of migration, and suggest that the establishment of the corridor should be understood as a victory of the liberatory movement of migrants, and the nature of the corridor as being anchored in an attempt to control the movement of people: when the control cannot be ensured through repression,
it needs to be ensured through humanitarianism. In the third part, we reflect on the role of the corridor, and especially of its closure, in the affirmation of the global apartheid and thus attempt to place the corridor in the context of neoliberal capitalism. The global apartheid, reinforced through borders, produces different categories of people with differential access to rights. Through the isolation and the prevention of contact (by physical and discursive means) between citizens and
those, who have been excluded from citizenship, the corridor and its closure participate in the establishment of a parallel inner apartheid, which endangers solidarity and the recognition of alliances
and complicities in the common struggles against global capitalism.

Keywords: Balkan migratory route, corridor, illegalisation, humanitarianism, global apartheid

Sarah Lunaček Brumen teaches at Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)
Ela Meh is MA student of ethnology and cultural anthropology at Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Duško Petrović (pp. 46–60)

Humanitarian Power – Rough Care: National politics of asylum in the humanitarian (biopolitical) framework

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Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.

Keywords: asylum, biopolitics, biopolitical space, humanitarianism, humanitarian exception

Duško Petrović works as research fellow at the Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Zagreb. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

 

Neža Kogovšek Šalamon (pp. 61-71)

The “Humanitarian” Corridor: A state of exception in times of global migration

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The purpose of the article is to analyse the migration corridor managed by the state authorities on the Balkan migration route in the second half of 2015, understand it from the perspective of the existing legal and institutional frameworks, and show that the corridor was a phenomenon outside of national and European positive law, while at the same time it responded to the requirements of international human rights principles. The corridor was a clear, intentional and coordinated deviation from legal provisions. It amounted to a state of exception, a certain level of state of emergency in which the rules adopted by the national and European legislatures were suspended and replaced by internal instructions or decrees, or even with constantly changing state practices. The analysis involved comparison of a positive normative framework with the actual procedures carried out by the state structures, and identification of discrepancies which were then qualitatively evaluated from the perspective of international standards. Another purpose of the article was to show that the corridor which was also sometimes referred to as a “humanitarian corridor”, only seemed humanitarian since in fact it served a completely different purpose, namely the interests of state authorities for the refugees and migrants to leave their territories as quickly as possible.

Keywords: corridor, asylum, refugee crisis, European Union, fundamental rights

Neža Kogovšek Šalamon holds a PhD in Law. She works as a researcher and director of the Peace Institute, based in Ljubljana, Slovenia. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Jure Gombač (pp. 72-83)

“Tremendous work, successful, an exemplary job!” Border ‘management’ in Slovenia in the time of mass arrival of migrants

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The aim of the article is to analyze events on the Slovenian border from the autumn of 2015 to February 2016 using concepts exploring borders, sovereignity, security and humanitarism. The main research question touches upon the possible use of the border for the control of migration and management of sovereignty, especially in the name of security. The following methods were used: literature review, participant observation, and content analysis of the Facebook pages of the NGOs involved as well as printed Slovenian media (the Delo newspaper). Results show the possibility that Slovenia deliberately created a state of exception on its borders in order to be able to control and manage the migrant situation in the name of sovereignity and security.

Keywords: migrations, borders, state of exception, security, sovereignity, Slovenija

Jure Gombač is a senior research fellow at the Slovenian Migration Institute and a lecturer at the University of Nova Gorica in the European Master in Migrations and Intercultural Relations. (jure.gombac@
zrc-sazu.si)

 

 

Žiga Podgornik-Jakil (pp. 84-98)

Berlin: Emergency shelters and contemporary border struggles

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Researching the developments of present political economy must necessarily include investigating the tools of contemporary border regime. These are used for surveillance and control of populations in order to create new divisions of labour and enable extraction of rent by using peoples’ bodies. The article focuses on emergency shelters in Berlin, that is, on their function and ways in which the asylum seekers accommodated there spontaneously struggle against them. The research was done as a militant and cooperative work of the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin’s district Wedding, which builds connections with people housed in the sports halls in the mentioned district. The author underlines that exhausting the aslyum seekers psychically is one of the strategies for filtering the ‘unwanted’ from the ‘wanted’, that is the ones that are interesting for the labour market. At the same time, the restriction of movement and limited access to civil rights confine asylum seekers in emergency shelters run by private companies, which seek profits on their account. Far from claiming that non-profit companies have a ‘better’ shelter administration, since the boundaries between them and profit-oriented companies are often blurred, the author rather speaks of new forms of anticolonial struggles by the people living inside. He understands these struggles as the struggles against the contemporary border regime in Germany and the EU and as a potential for building an inclusive society.

Keywords: border regime, border struggles, Berlin, emergency shelters, Lager Mobilisation Network

Žiga Podgornik-Jakil is a user of Social Center Rog in Ljubljana, an activist in the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin and a PhD student at the Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology at Freie
Universität Berlin. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Sara Pistotnik, Uršula Lipovec Čebron in Nina Kozinc (pp. 99-118)

»This Place Became Ours, It Became a Common Space. That Is the Point of The Antiracist Front.«

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The beginning of the year 2015 was marked by numerous refugee deaths in the Mediterranean sea. As a consequence, an already existing path called the Balkan Route gained more importance. Slovenia is one of the countries on this route, and even before the first refugees came to Croatia-Slovenia border, the Antiracist Front Without Borders was established. As explained by the interviewees, the activities of the Front took place in three phases: the first phase was marked by solidarity protests and the second by activities on the borders of the Balkan Route. In the third phase, the Front initiated a network and started to organize activities with the refugees who have applied for asylum in Slovenia. Interviewees also speak about self-organization and mutual learning, integration, humanitarianism and existing asylum policy.

Keywords: Antiracist Front Without Borders, Balkan Route, refugees, movement, integration, asylum policy

 

Lilijana Stepančič (str. 119-150)

Begunci za kritiko znanosti: Fotografski publicistični projekt

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Mansur, Nina Kozinc in Danijela Tamše (str. 155-158)

»Tukaj se počutim dobro.«

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Polona Mozetič (pp. 159-180)

Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

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Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.
In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection.
However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent
”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

Keyword: international protection, choosing the state of asylum, Dublin III, implicit withdrawal of application for international protection, non-refoulement principle

Polona Mozetič holds LL.B. and doctorate in law. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Katja Cof in Iva Juhart (pp. 181-193)

“Muscle Drain”: Migration in sport or sport as a new migration strategy?

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The article discusses migration in sport: the reasons for the migration of athletes from the Global South to Slovenia and to the rest of Europe, the role of sport before and after migration, and the opportunities offered by the Republic of Slovenia. It is based on interviews with migrants involved in sports. After arriving in Slovenia, some of them ended up in an Asylum Centre or Centre for Foreigners. Slovenian law states that it is possible to obtain documents to live and work in Slovenia in the case of notable sports achievements, but the experience of our interviewees has shown the opposite. Due to the increasing controls and restrictions on general migration, migration in sport can also indicate a (new) migration strategy. As it often includes a desire to earn more money and not only to succeed, it may also be called “muscle drain”. Within African football migration, the players often become victims of fraud and exploitation, which has echoes of neo-colonialism and human trafficking. Nevertheless, they do not return to their homes, and their everyday life becomes similar to the life of other migrants fighting for survival in the country of immigration.

Keywords: migration in sport, migration strategy, national interest, muscle drain, human trafficking.

Katja Cof is MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)
Iva Juhart is MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

 

Uršula Lipovec Čebron in Tomaž Gregorc (pp. 194-202)

Asylum seekers – fellow citizens: decentralized models of the reception and accommodation of asylum seekers in Trieste

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In an interview, Gianfranco Schiavone, President of the Italian Solidarity Consortium ICS (Consorzio Italiano di Solidarietà – Ufficio Rifugiati Onlus) in Trieste, presents a decentralized model of reception and accommodation of asylum seekers which is considered “good practice” in Italy as well as in Europe. The model is based on the idea that it is necessary to integrate asylum seekers into the local environment from the beginning and provide them with as much autonomy as possible in their everyday life. Experience in Trieste shows that, compared with the centralized model of accommodation (reception centres for asylum seekers), the dispersed forms of accommodation (apartments and other community-based living arrangements) offer a better quality of life for asylum seekers. At the same time, this approach results in less tension within the local community and is better in terms of costs. In addition, Schiavone talks about changes in future European policies. He considers whether Slovenia will continue to implement the current centralized model, and proposes the introduction of diversified forms of accommodation, which could have similar benefits to those seen in the Trieste model.

Keywords: asylum seekers, inclusion, Trieste

 

The Charter of Lampedusa (pp. 203-219)

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The Charter of Lampedusa is a pact achieved mainly through a constituent grassroots process which brought together various organizations, associations and individuals in Lampedusa from 31 January to 2 February 2014. The gathering followed the death of over 600 women, men and children in the shipwrecks of 3 and 11 October 2013, at the time the most recent of a long series of tragedies. The Mediterranean Sea has become a cemetery as a result of current migration control policies. The Charter is not intended as a draft law, legislative proposal or as a petition to governments, but requires radical economic, political, legal and cultural rethinking. Such a U-turn begins with the construction of an alternative vision: freedom and right to self-determination for all regardless of one’s nationality or place of birth/residence. The Charter of Lampedusa has two parts. The first part contains founding principles through which all struggles and actions inspired by the Charter of Lampedusa should proceed. The second part is a response to current migration policies and militarization of national borders. The combination of these produces inequality, racism, discrimination, exploitation, confinement and the death of fellow human beings.

Keywords: The Charter of Lampedusa, migration, control, inequality, transformation

 

 

Hashim in Neža Vodopivec (pp. 220-220)

Sektaštvo v Iraku

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Ahmad in Ana Martinčič (pp. 225-226)

V iskanju varnega življenja

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New Keywords Collective (pp. 231-235)

“Migrant crisis” / “Refugee crisis”

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The article highlights the fundamentally misleading and unstable nature of the distinctions between the terms ”refugees”, “asylum-seekers”, and “migrants”, all of whom experience the precariousness produced by the EU’s exclusionary politics on asylum – due to juridical instability and geographical hyper-mobility of migrants subjects. The “hotspot” system, first launched in May 2015, represents the restructuring of mechanisms of capture and identification in response to the migration “turmoil” at the external frontiers of Europe. On the other hand, transit zones such as the Eidomeni camp at the Greek-Macedonian border or the makeshift self-organized refugee / migrant camp at Calais operate informally as de facto “hotspots.” What is commonly called “the migrant crisis” or “the refugee crisis” actually reflects the frantic attempt by the EU and European nation-states to control, contain, and govern
people’s (“unauthorized”) transnational and inter-continental movements. Naming it a “refugee/migrant crisis” appears to be a device for the authorization of exceptional or “emergency” governmental
measures – and then their normalization. The very terms “migrant crisis” and “refugee crisis” tend to personalize “crisis” and relocate “crisis” in the body and person of the figurative migrant / refugee,
as if s/he is the carrier of a disease called “crisis,” and thus carries the contagion of “crisis” wherever she may go. The article calls for attention to the new spaces of “transit” opened up by the migrants and
refugees themselves, and consequently the ways in which these “irregular” human mobilities have scrambled and re-shuffled the social and political geography of “Europe.”

Keywords: migrant, refugee, aylum-seekers, crisis, mobility, autonomy

 

Kristina Božič (pp. 236-246)

Militarization of the borders and illegalization of people: A profitable attack on humane and democratic society

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Building up the borders of Europe, their militarization and turning refugees into illegal human beings are the key approaches of the EU towards people fleeing to survive. Thus, Europe is turning its border areas into crisis conditions and exports its policies, under economic duress, into third countries. Simultaneously, it is enhancing its control apparatus that infringes into lives of EU citizens. However, the creation of a class of unwanted people benefits EU economies in parallel with the militarization of the EU borders, which empowers the military–security industry, the smuggler networks grow. The ways to reach Europe are becoming ever more deadly. Anthropologist Ruben Andersson, author of the book Illegality, Inc. and Martin Lemberg-Pedersen, adjunct professor at the Centre for Advanced Migration Studies at the University of Copenhagen, emphasize and warn about these developments – the article is based on interviews with each of them.

Keywords: militarization, borders, illegality, military and security industry, democracy

Kristina Božič is a lawyer, working as a journalist. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Simona Zavratnik in Sanja Cukut Krilić (pp. 247-260)

Destination: Europe. Path: from Schengen »e-border« to barbed wires

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The predominant response of European Union countries to current migration movements from the global South has been a policy of classification of migrants into more legitimate/wanted and less legitimate/wanted. Despite the fact that migration is a historical reality in the European space, European Union countries have predominantly reacted to new migratory realities in bureaucratic ways and by creating and intensifying the image of migrants as the cultural other and as a threat to European cultural and political values. The European Union could not react effectively even in the cases of transit migration. In line with the increasing criminalisation of migration and an increasingly restrictive migration policy, or rather in its absence, smuggling and human trafficking networks are on the increase. Fighting against these phenomena takes attention away from national and European
Union border and migration policies that have produced such gambling with human lives. Considering the historical development of the national population concept, the mainly utilitarian
perceptions of migrants and the restructuring of welfare systems, it is imperative to question the dichotomies that classify migrants into more or less wanted or legitimate, and the prevailing language
of classifications that narrow the wide array of reasons for migration into simplified categories determined by different dimensions of social stratification.

Keywords: migration, fortress Europe, economic migrant, refugee, migration policy

Simona Zavratnik is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Research Fellow at the Centre for Spatial Sociology at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. Her current research interests include issues of contemporary migration, refugees and social solidarity. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)
Sanja Cukut Krilić, PhD in sociology, Research Fellow at the Sociomedical Institute, ZRC SAZU in Ljubljana. Her research interests are female migration, transnational families, care work and domestic violence in vulnerable groups. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Matjaž in Karmen Hrovat (pp. 261-263)

Združevanje z družino: številne težave in ovire

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Ela Meh (pp. 267-289)

European migration policy and the construction of »migrants« in Serbia

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For a few years before the summer of 2015, when the unprecedented scale and strength of the movement of migrants forced Fortress Europe to temporarily open up a corridor for quicker and safer passage through the Balkans, Serbia was one of the places where many migrants were stuck for days, weeks or even months, on their way towards the EU. The aim of this paper is to present the situation of migrants in Serbia, as it was up to the summer of 2015, from a critical perspective, by showing that the category of ‘migrants’ created by the European migration policy has been externalized and transposed into Serbian legislation, and that this category is used to justify repression of people who fall into it. In the first part, I theorize on the nature of the EU migration policy – with its tendency to focus on securitization and externalization tendencies – and argue that it produces the category of ‘migrants’. In the second part, I discuss the consequences of the migration policy in Serbia, by referring to fieldwork conducted there in 2012 and between November 2014 and July 2015, based on participant observation, informal interviews and subsequent media production. I focus on a case study of two winters in the jungles of Subotica.

Keywords: migrants, European migration policy, illegalization, police violence, Serbia

Ela Meh is MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

 

Iva Juhart in Larisa Petrič (pp. 290-307)

Western Balkan migration route: Serbia as the last point before entering the “better future”

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Migrants are seen as illegitimate newcomers to the European area. Hoping for a better future, they choose the most suitable illegalized migration routes according to different factors. One of those is the three-phased Western Balkans route with Serbia being the most important spot on this route. Serbia implements migration control and is trying to hold migrants from entering the Schengen area in accordance with European legislation. Serbia represents a point where asylum seekers get a place to rest and plan their further journey into the EU. Due to different reasons and a deficient asylum system, many of them have to find shelter in the so-called jungles. ‘Mobile commons’ is a set of important skills, knowledge and solidarity, shared on the way – at rest or in the search for common solutions. On their way, migrants make decisions and adopt strategies according to the legal system of countries through which they travel and their own preferences, with the aim of making their migration process easier. Temporary identities are created, people know hot spots for sharing information about the route, and the mobile internet is what makes them visible in the virtual world. The last is one of the key elements by which they remain present throughout the whole journey. The problem with which this article implicitly deals is the political illegalization of migrants and, by extension, of human life. 

Keywords: Western Balkan migration route, asylum in Serbia, jungle, mobile commons, temporary mobile communities

Iva Juhart is an MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)
Larisa Petrič is an MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of in Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Tina Ivnik (pp. 308-326)

Migration of women: Serbia

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The article is a result of a field work in three asylum seekers centres in Serbia. The author deals with migrant and refugee women's experiences on the western Balkan route. The methodology used is mainly semi-structured and un-structured interviews with migrants, employees in asylum seekers centres and local inhabitants. The article examines the specific experiences of migrant and refugee women on their way into Europe. It focuses on the different forms of violence they face, on the experiences of pregnant women and on the changes to their situations during the mobility process. It further deals with the legislation concerning refugees and tries to show how legislation indirectly creates threats to women migrants while at the same time depriving them of power and victimizing them. It is based on understanding the legislature as a male-centred, which means that it is mainly shaped by experiences of men while often not examining the specific experiences and needs of women. The author notes that refugee women need to submit to the dominant representation of them as victims, even though there is a great deal of autonomy, solidarity and perseverance in the stories of the women interviewed.

Keywords: refugees, migration, women, violence, Serbia

Tina Ivnik is an MA student of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Mojca Vah Jevšnik in Kristina Toplak (pp. 331-344)

The welfare state and its impact on emigration: The case of Slovenia

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The article provides an important but often overlooked insight into the links between welfare state generosity and increased emigration. The complexity of establishing this connection requires careful methodological planning and is an ambitious undertaking that is beyond the scope of this article. The purpose is rather to outline the simultaneously emerging trends in decreasing social expenditure and rising emigration rates and point out the challenges and pitfalls in linking the two phenomena. The authors develop their argumentation on the case of Slovenia.

Keywords: welfare state, social security, emigration, migration research, Slovenia

Mojca Vah Jevšnik is a researcher at the Slovenian Migration Institute ZRC SAZU and lecturer in the postgraduate study program European Master in Migration and Intercultural Relations, University of
Nova Gorica. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)
Kristina Toplak is a Research Fellow at the Slovenian Migration Institute ZRC SAZU. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Tija Jerkič (pp. 345-361)

The imagery of prospective emigrants from Slovenia

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The article examines the images that young Slovenian people associate with a decision or intention to emigrate in the future. Through unstructured interviews the author analyzes their imageries as key factors and motivators of future emigration. Beside an imaginary of “somewhere else” the position of the interviewees in the global arena must be taken into account. It turns out that their ambivalent position, on the one hand marked by privilege on the global level and by marginalization in the native country on the other, drives their imageries, which are composed of more than just imagery of somewhere else. These are marked with imageries of space, people, society, time and movement, and have a homogenizing effect on their perception of the “here and now”, and on the “here” in the future. Current location, in this case Slovenia, becomes a single, mostly negative category, opposed to which are the positive qualities that potentially exist elsewhere. “Elsewhere” does not represent only one possible destination, but a multitude of places that have the potential of a better life. And mere potential is enough for the interviewees to imagine emigrating to a destination and living there. Their imagery of ‘abroad’ thus comprises also imagery of the lightness of travel, supported by modern communication and transport networks.

Ključne besede: imagery, happiness, mobility, home, future

Tija Jerkič holds a BA in ethnology and cultural anthropology. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

Barbara Samaluk (pp. 362-380)

Neoliberal (self)colonisation: Neoliberal (self)colonisation: the active population emigration from Poland and Slovenia

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NThrough the case study of contemporary Polish and Slovenia emigration, this article exposes the micro effects of neoliberal (self)colonisation that marks the present cultural political economy on various local and global scales and affects exit strategies of active populations. For in-depth understanding of contemporary migration flows it is first necessary to shed light on the socio-economic and historical context that brought to neoliberal (self)colonisation in post-socialist Europe. In this regard, the article particularly focuses on the transition and Europeanization process and the current economic crises within Poland and Slovenia. This historical and socio-economic process forms the necessary foreground for the exploration of micro effects explored through in-depth interviews with Polish and Slovenian migrants in Great Britain. These findings show both similarities and differences between these two groups of migrants that arise from diverse socio-economic and historical contexts and the imposition of neoliberal (self)colonisation in Poland and Slovenia. Keywords: neoliberal (self)colonisation, post-socialism, emigration, Poland, Slovenia.

Keywords: (self)colonisation, post-socialism, emigration, Poland, Slovenia

Barbara Samaluk is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Greenwich. Her areas of research include: transnational labour migration, cultural political economy, commodification and marketization processes within postcolonial and post-socialist order. (Ta e-poštni naslov je zaščiten proti smetenju. Za ogled potrebujete Javascript, da si jo ogledate.)

 

 

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